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An abstract is a sufficient source of information about the paper. An abstract must be:

  • compact (100-250 words)
  • structured
  • original
  • informative.

Abstract outline:

- State of the problem: problem(s) posed, previous studies, author’s proposals.

- Materials and methods: the way to implement author’s proposals, its novelty.

- Results: solution offered and its justification.

- Conclusion: areas of application  of author’s solutions and further research.